Slime sublime
Sometimes a closer look reveals a beauty unseen from a distance.
Case in point: The scanning electron micrograph above by Eberhardt Josue Friedrich Kernahan and Enrique Roderiguez Canas at the Universadad Autonoma de Madrid.
The micrograph depicts sludge from an industrial farming process after it has been burned. In the foreground, silver oxide structures (colored pink, purple and green) and structures rich in calcium carbonate (colored brown) can be seen. The background (blue) shows the surface of a zirconia crucible (a container that can withstand very high temperatures), which was used to hold the sample as it burned.
The sludge was burned to measure how much carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur it contained. A wide range of organic and inorganic samples can be analyzed in this way, including soils, sludge, water, fuels, polymers, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This technique can also be used in environmental studies to verify the quality or contamination of fuels and soils.
The image was among this year’s Wellcome Image Awards winners.

Slime sublime

Sometimes a closer look reveals a beauty unseen from a distance.

Case in point: The scanning electron micrograph above by Eberhardt Josue Friedrich Kernahan and Enrique Roderiguez Canas at the Universadad Autonoma de Madrid.

The micrograph depicts sludge from an industrial farming process after it has been burned. In the foreground, silver oxide structures (colored pink, purple and green) and structures rich in calcium carbonate (colored brown) can be seen. The background (blue) shows the surface of a zirconia crucible (a container that can withstand very high temperatures), which was used to hold the sample as it burned.

The sludge was burned to measure how much carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur it contained. A wide range of organic and inorganic samples can be analyzed in this way, including soils, sludge, water, fuels, polymers, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This technique can also be used in environmental studies to verify the quality or contamination of fuels and soils.

The image was among this year’s Wellcome Image Awards winners.

Sperm-inal velocity
The little guys – or maybe not so little – are in the news these days.
Most recently, of course, is the discovery of a 16 million-year-old fossil of a female ostracod with “enormous fossilized sperm in her reproductive tract.” Size is relative since we’re talking about an extinct species of tiny shrimp. 
As long as we’re discussing old sperm, check out Emily Oster’s ruminations on whether actual science supports the popular notion that older men’s sperm really is worse than younger men’s. Her conclusion: Some studies suggest some concern, but the old guys are holding their own.
Finally, in a recent paper published in Cell Reports, researchers at Montana State University describe early efforts to make primitive sperm out of skin cells. It’s apparently much easier than you’d think, though the researchers say the resulting sperm aren’t actually functional.
By the way, here’s a tidbit for your next cocktail party: The average speed of human sperm is 8 inches per hour. Generally speaking, the lifespan of sperm is one to three days, though some plucky individuals might persist for up to five.
Image courtesy of Wellcome Images.

Sperm-inal velocity

The little guys – or maybe not so little – are in the news these days.

Most recently, of course, is the discovery of a 16 million-year-old fossil of a female ostracod with “enormous fossilized sperm in her reproductive tract.” Size is relative since we’re talking about an extinct species of tiny shrimp. 

As long as we’re discussing old sperm, check out Emily Oster’s ruminations on whether actual science supports the popular notion that older men’s sperm really is worse than younger men’s. Her conclusion: Some studies suggest some concern, but the old guys are holding their own.

Finally, in a recent paper published in Cell Reports, researchers at Montana State University describe early efforts to make primitive sperm out of skin cells. It’s apparently much easier than you’d think, though the researchers say the resulting sperm aren’t actually functional.

By the way, here’s a tidbit for your next cocktail party: The average speed of human sperm is 8 inches per hour. Generally speaking, the lifespan of sperm is one to three days, though some plucky individuals might persist for up to five.

Image courtesy of Wellcome Images.

The awe of similars
Cilia are typically tiny, even microscopic, protruberances. They are hairlike – derived in fact from the Latin word for eyelash – but far more complicated, found abundantly throughout nature doing many kinds of jobs.
There are two types: motile and non-motile. The former are employed as a form of locomotion, with groups of cilia undulating in coordinated waves as a method of transportation. Non-motile or primary cilia behave as sensory organelles. Humans feature both types.
Motile cilia, for example, are found in the lining of the trachea, where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs and in the Fallopian tubes, where their rhythmic beating moves the egg from the ovum to the uterus.
Virtually every cell in the human body sports at least one primary cilium, used by the cell to take measure of its surroundings. For some cilia, such as those in the ear or lining the nasal cavity, this job is particularly notable. They are essential elements of our sensory processes.
The images above: Top left, a false-colored scanning electron micrograph of cilia in a human Fallopian tube, courtesy of Steven Gschmeissner; top right, nasal cilia, courtesy of Susumu Nishinaga; lower left, an immature hair bundle of cells in the cochlea of the human ear, courtesy of David Furness, Wellcome Images; and lower right, cilia lining the trachea, courtesy again of Gschmeissner.

The awe of similars

Cilia are typically tiny, even microscopic, protruberances. They are hairlike – derived in fact from the Latin word for eyelash – but far more complicated, found abundantly throughout nature doing many kinds of jobs.

There are two types: motile and non-motile. The former are employed as a form of locomotion, with groups of cilia undulating in coordinated waves as a method of transportation. Non-motile or primary cilia behave as sensory organelles. Humans feature both types.

Motile cilia, for example, are found in the lining of the trachea, where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs and in the Fallopian tubes, where their rhythmic beating moves the egg from the ovum to the uterus.

Virtually every cell in the human body sports at least one primary cilium, used by the cell to take measure of its surroundings. For some cilia, such as those in the ear or lining the nasal cavity, this job is particularly notable. They are essential elements of our sensory processes.

The images above: Top left, a false-colored scanning electron micrograph of cilia in a human Fallopian tube, courtesy of Steven Gschmeissner; top right, nasal cilia, courtesy of Susumu Nishinaga; lower left, an immature hair bundle of cells in the cochlea of the human ear, courtesy of David Furness, Wellcome Images; and lower right, cilia lining the trachea, courtesy again of Gschmeissner.

Happy 3rd Blogday to Us!
Today marks our third anniversary on tumblr – three years of discovery, expert advice and occasional moments of frivolity.
Some of the things we’ve done in those three years: 
Gone from a handful of followers to over 69,500 as of this posting (!!)
Posted 120 weekly Science in Photos features
Offered over 50 Q & As with our experts on relevant health issues, such as how to navigate the changing guidelines for prostate cancer screenings to mammogram standards to effects of bath salts to the occurrence of stroke in young adults.
And we’ve had some fun, too! From hijacking the zombie apocalypse to speak about disaster preparedness to touting our Super Heroes of Medicine to highlighting members of our team who helped deliver a baby gorilla – there’s more to science and medicine than dry research papers, after all.
We’ve also liked over 33,000 of your posts!
Of course, we wouldn’t be able to do what we do without the support of this wonderful community – thanks for likes, reblogs, and follows. We hope to keep you engaged and informed for many years to come!

Happy 3rd Blogday to Us!

Today marks our third anniversary on tumblr – three years of discovery, expert advice and occasional moments of frivolity.

Some of the things we’ve done in those three years: 

Gone from a handful of followers to over 69,500 as of this posting (!!)

Posted 120 weekly Science in Photos features

Offered over 50 Q & As with our experts on relevant health issues, such as how to navigate the changing guidelines for prostate cancer screenings to mammogram standards to effects of bath salts to the occurrence of stroke in young adults.

And we’ve had some fun, too! From hijacking the zombie apocalypse to speak about disaster preparedness to touting our Super Heroes of Medicine to highlighting members of our team who helped deliver a baby gorilla – there’s more to science and medicine than dry research papers, after all.

We’ve also liked over 33,000 of your posts!

Of course, we wouldn’t be able to do what we do without the support of this wonderful community – thanks for likes, reblogs, and follows. We hope to keep you engaged and informed for many years to come!

Open wide, as in “ooooooh!”
Scientists have discovered the DNA of millions of microbes trapped in the calcified plaque of four medieval skeletons, which may give clues to what our ancestors ate and the diseases they fought, according to news reports.
Plaque is a biofilm, usually pale yellow that naturally accumulates on teeth. It’s created by multitudinous oral bacteria attempting to attach themselves to the smooth surfaces of your teeth. When you don’t brush well or regularly visit your dentist, it builds up. It’s the stuff scraped away by dental hygienists using whirring grinders and tiny, terrifying stainless steel tools.
In the days of yore, dental hygiene was far less rigorous, of course. Plaque built up on folk’s teeth, layer upon hardening layer, until it completely covered them and was often thicker than the tooth itself.
So brush often and well – and don’t forget to thoroughly rinse off your toothbrush when you’re done. The image above is a single toothbrush bristle covered with microscopic mouth detritus.       

Open wide, as in “ooooooh!”

Scientists have discovered the DNA of millions of microbes trapped in the calcified plaque of four medieval skeletons, which may give clues to what our ancestors ate and the diseases they fought, according to news reports.

Plaque is a biofilm, usually pale yellow that naturally accumulates on teeth. It’s created by multitudinous oral bacteria attempting to attach themselves to the smooth surfaces of your teeth. When you don’t brush well or regularly visit your dentist, it builds up. It’s the stuff scraped away by dental hygienists using whirring grinders and tiny, terrifying stainless steel tools.

In the days of yore, dental hygiene was far less rigorous, of course. Plaque built up on folk’s teeth, layer upon hardening layer, until it completely covered them and was often thicker than the tooth itself.

So brush often and well – and don’t forget to thoroughly rinse off your toothbrush when you’re done. The image above is a single toothbrush bristle covered with microscopic mouth detritus.       

All things anthropogeny
Established in 2008 by co-founders Ajit Varki,  Margaret Schoeninger  and Fred Gage, the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA) promotes transdisciplinary research in the study of human origins.
Anthropogeny is not a synonym for human evolution, but rather encompasses investigation of all factors involved in human origins, including climate, cultural, geographic, social and ecological. The word was popularized by the noted German zoologist Ernst Haeckel.
Not surprisingly, it’s a rich and diverse topic of conversation. Consider CARTA’s regular symposia, which have produced more than 150 scholarly presentations on subjects ranging from language and the biology of altruism to the evolution of nutrition and whether the human mind is unique. Future symposia will discuss child-rearing in human evolution and the role of male aggression and violence.
All CARTA symposia are recorded by UCSD-TV and archived on multiple sites: CARTA, UCSD-TV, iTunes and YouTube.
Recently, the number of online hits of CARTA videos topped 10 million in just four years – a big number in a blink of geologic time.

All things anthropogeny

Established in 2008 by co-founders Ajit VarkiMargaret Schoeninger  and Fred Gage, the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA) promotes transdisciplinary research in the study of human origins.

Anthropogeny is not a synonym for human evolution, but rather encompasses investigation of all factors involved in human origins, including climate, cultural, geographic, social and ecological. The word was popularized by the noted German zoologist Ernst Haeckel.

Not surprisingly, it’s a rich and diverse topic of conversation. Consider CARTA’s regular symposia, which have produced more than 150 scholarly presentations on subjects ranging from language and the biology of altruism to the evolution of nutrition and whether the human mind is unique. Future symposia will discuss child-rearing in human evolution and the role of male aggression and violence.

All CARTA symposia are recorded by UCSD-TV and archived on multiple sites: CARTA, UCSD-TV, iTunes and YouTube.

Recently, the number of online hits of CARTA videos topped 10 million in just four years – a big number in a blink of geologic time.

Epigenetic memory
Each of us possesses our own unique genetic code, a fact that presents a monumental conundrum: How does that one singular sequence of DNA dictate the creation and function of our multitudinous and varied cells. Your skin cells, muscle cells and fat cells all share the same genetic information, but perform wildly different roles. What defines and determines those functions?
The answer, in a word, is the epigenome, a Greek-derived word that literally means “above the genome.” The epigenome consists of all of the chemical compounds that modify or mark the genome in a way that tells DNA what to do, where to do it and when.
The study of the epigenome is a relatively young endeavor, and much is not known. One of the tools of the epigenome is DNA methylation, a process in which a methyl group is added to cytosine DNA nucleotides, marking genes for repression, silencing repetitive elements and making genomic imprinting possible.
In normal mammalian development, DNA methylation dramatically changes as new cell lineages emerge. “This complex remodeling is evidently essential for development, as loss of the machinery that established DNA methylation results in embryonic lethality,” said Gary C. Hon, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at the Ludwig San Diego, based at UC San Diego.
In a new paper published online Sunday in Nature Genetics, first author Hon, senior author Bing Ren, PhD, a Ludwig scientist and professor of cellular and molecular medicine at UC San Diego and colleagues probe deeper into the mysteries of epigenetics, reporting on how DNA methylation changes in different kinds of tissue.
“We created very high resolution maps of DNA methylation for 17 diverse tissues in an individual mouse,” said Hon. “Interestingly, we found that if you look at DNA methylation with a wide angle lens, you’ll find that it is generally constant between different tissues. But if you zoom in, there are a large number of short regions that show very tissue-specific DNA methylation, and the vast majority of these regions happened at the many regulatory elements encoded in the genome that control the genes specifically to a tissue.”
The epigenome reveals the current state of a cell and, in embryonic cells, portions of it can reflect the cell’s potential future developmental paths – what it will be when it grows up. Ren, Hon and colleagues discovered, to their surprise, that in adult tissues, some of these regions of tissue-specific DNA methylation involved regulatory elements that were no longer active, but had been during development.
“In this way, the epigenome of each adult tissue is imprinted with the regulatory memory of its past,” said Hon.
The findings are fundamental science. They “do not have immediate clinical relevance. They simply help understanding of development,” said Hon. But they may also auger greater import in the future, bolstering the recognized importance of DNA methylation and providing “an epigenetic signature that can be used to find regulatory elements active in development, but which are no longer active in adult tissues.”
Such a signature might be helpful to understanding the origins of diseases that occur early in developing life, a necessary step before science can take action to prevent them.

Epigenetic memory

Each of us possesses our own unique genetic code, a fact that presents a monumental conundrum: How does that one singular sequence of DNA dictate the creation and function of our multitudinous and varied cells. Your skin cells, muscle cells and fat cells all share the same genetic information, but perform wildly different roles. What defines and determines those functions?

The answer, in a word, is the epigenome, a Greek-derived word that literally means “above the genome.” The epigenome consists of all of the chemical compounds that modify or mark the genome in a way that tells DNA what to do, where to do it and when.

The study of the epigenome is a relatively young endeavor, and much is not known. One of the tools of the epigenome is DNA methylation, a process in which a methyl group is added to cytosine DNA nucleotides, marking genes for repression, silencing repetitive elements and making genomic imprinting possible.

In normal mammalian development, DNA methylation dramatically changes as new cell lineages emerge. “This complex remodeling is evidently essential for development, as loss of the machinery that established DNA methylation results in embryonic lethality,” said Gary C. Hon, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at the Ludwig San Diego, based at UC San Diego.

In a new paper published online Sunday in Nature Genetics, first author Hon, senior author Bing Ren, PhD, a Ludwig scientist and professor of cellular and molecular medicine at UC San Diego and colleagues probe deeper into the mysteries of epigenetics, reporting on how DNA methylation changes in different kinds of tissue.

“We created very high resolution maps of DNA methylation for 17 diverse tissues in an individual mouse,” said Hon. “Interestingly, we found that if you look at DNA methylation with a wide angle lens, you’ll find that it is generally constant between different tissues. But if you zoom in, there are a large number of short regions that show very tissue-specific DNA methylation, and the vast majority of these regions happened at the many regulatory elements encoded in the genome that control the genes specifically to a tissue.”

The epigenome reveals the current state of a cell and, in embryonic cells, portions of it can reflect the cell’s potential future developmental paths – what it will be when it grows up. Ren, Hon and colleagues discovered, to their surprise, that in adult tissues, some of these regions of tissue-specific DNA methylation involved regulatory elements that were no longer active, but had been during development.

“In this way, the epigenome of each adult tissue is imprinted with the regulatory memory of its past,” said Hon.

The findings are fundamental science. They “do not have immediate clinical relevance. They simply help understanding of development,” said Hon. But they may also auger greater import in the future, bolstering the recognized importance of DNA methylation and providing “an epigenetic signature that can be used to find regulatory elements active in development, but which are no longer active in adult tissues.”

Such a signature might be helpful to understanding the origins of diseases that occur early in developing life, a necessary step before science can take action to prevent them.

What happened to Douglas Prasher?
The Nobel Prize strictly limits shared awards to three people.
In 2008, the Prize in chemistry was famously shared by Roger Tsien of the UC San Diego School of Medicine, Martin Chalfie at Columbia University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory’s Osama Shimomura for their work on the discovery and development of green fluorescent proteins (GFP).
The fourth man out was Douglas Prasher, who had isolated and sequenced the gene for GFP, then generously provided the data to scientists like Tsien, Chalfie and Shimomura. When the 2008 prize was announced, though, Prasher was working as a courtesy shuttle driver for a Toyota dealership in Huntsville, Alabama.
Prasher’s story – a tale of professional and personal misfortune – has been widely reported, but it appears to have a happy – or at least happier – ending. Prasher has returned to science and, specifically, to Tsien’s UC San Diego lab, where he is working as a staff research associate on new ways to screen cell mutations for optical properties. You can read his updated story here in The Scientist.

What happened to Douglas Prasher?

The Nobel Prize strictly limits shared awards to three people.

In 2008, the Prize in chemistry was famously shared by Roger Tsien of the UC San Diego School of Medicine, Martin Chalfie at Columbia University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory’s Osama Shimomura for their work on the discovery and development of green fluorescent proteins (GFP).

The fourth man out was Douglas Prasher, who had isolated and sequenced the gene for GFP, then generously provided the data to scientists like Tsien, Chalfie and Shimomura. When the 2008 prize was announced, though, Prasher was working as a courtesy shuttle driver for a Toyota dealership in Huntsville, Alabama.

Prasher’s story – a tale of professional and personal misfortune – has been widely reported, but it appears to have a happy – or at least happier – ending. Prasher has returned to science and, specifically, to Tsien’s UC San Diego lab, where he is working as a staff research associate on new ways to screen cell mutations for optical properties. You can read his updated story here in The Scientist.

Digging on the Altman CTRI

Local leaders and luminaries gathered Thursday, Jan. 10, to officially break ground on the Altman Clinical and Translational Research Institute (CTRI), a new structure that will bring together laboratory and clinical researchers in a collaborative search for faster, better ways to treat and cure disease.

Though the morning was notably cold and windy, a series of speakers brightly celebrated “the great day,” among them: UC San Diego Chancellor Pradeep Khosla, vice chancellor for Health Science and dean of the School of Medicine David Brenner, MD, CTRI director Gary Firestein, MD, UC San Diego Health System chief executive officer Paul S. Viviano, Department of Pediatrics chair Gabriel Haddad, MD, and San Diego Mayor Bob Filner.

All extolled the passion and investment of Steve and Lisa Altman, long-time San Diego philanthropists who have pledged $10 million toward construction of the $269 million, 7-story building that will rise near the UC San Diego Thornton Hospital, Moores Cancer Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center and Jacobs Medical Center, which is currently under construction.

“We know translational medicine is the future. This building will be a centerpiece of that vision,” said Khosla, observing that engineers, doctors, computer scientists, geneticists, microbiologists and others will all work together under one roof. “They won’t be able to avoid each other.”

Brenner said places capable of combining the resources, people and vision to create something like the Altman CTRI are rare. “This will be a place where people can access the leading-edge care that only an academic medical center can offer,” he said.

The Altman CTRI is slated to open in early 2016.

Leech neurons stained with voltage-sensitive dye. 
Top UCSD Health Sciences stories of 2012 
The results are in from our first-ever faculty survey of the top UC San Diego Health Sciences stories for 2012. 
Faculty were asked to pick their top three stories from 15 choices culled from the dozens of news reports and releases produced last year by the UC San Diego Health Sciences Marketing & Communications office. 
The top spot went to Mark Tuszynski’s paper, published in the September 14 issue of Cell, in which he and colleagues were able to regenerate axonal growth at the site of severe spinal injury in rats using neural stem cells. The work has obvious implications for efforts to develop therapies to restore central nervous system and motor function. 
In second place was a PNAS paper out of Roger Tsien’s lab which reported creating a new generation of fast-acting fluorescent dyes that optically highlight electrical activity in neuronal membranes. The achievement will help scientists better decipher how brain cells function and interact. 
In third place was research by a multi-institution team, headed by Sharon Reed in the UC San Diego Departments of Pathology and Medicine and James McKerrow at the UC San Francisco Sandler Center for Drug Discovery, that identified an existing drug was also effective against Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses and results in the death of more than 70,000 people worldwide each year. The findings were published in the June issue of Nature Medicine. 
You can read more about all of the 2012 selections below. 
Fast-acting dyes highlight membrane activities of neurons (R. Tsien, E. Miller, et al.) 
Researchers induce functional Alzheimer’s neurons in vitro from pluripotent stem cells (L. Goldstein, et al.) 
Brain cancer patients treated with novel viral vector that leaves healthy cells untouched (S. Kesari, et al.) 
New weight loss surgery folds stomach into smaller size (S. Horgan, et al.) 
Drug found for parasite that causes amoebic dysentery, kills thousands worldwide (S. Reed, et al.) 
New surgical technique may reverse paralysis, restore use of hand (J. Brown, et al.) 
New technology pinpoints source of irregular heart rhythms, improves treatment (S. Narayan, et al.) 
Novel enzyme target identified for anti-malarial drug development (L. Bode, et al.) 
New method indentifies whether leukemia will be aggressive or slow-moving (T. Kipps, et al.) 
Patterns in adolescent brains could predict heavy alcohol use (S. Tapert, et al.) 
Potency of statins linked to muscle pain and weakness (B. Golomb, et al.) 
Neural stem cells regenerate axons in severe spinal cord injury (M. Tuszynski, et al.) 
New way of fighting high cholesterol upends assumptions (C. Glass, et al.) 
Blocking tumor-induced inflammation impacts cancer development (M. Karin, et al.) 
Study finds potential new drug therapy for Crohn’s disease (W. Sanborn, et al.)

Leech neurons stained with voltage-sensitive dye.

Top UCSD Health Sciences stories of 2012 

The results are in from our first-ever faculty survey of the top UC San Diego Health Sciences stories for 2012.

Faculty were asked to pick their top three stories from 15 choices culled from the dozens of news reports and releases produced last year by the UC San Diego Health Sciences Marketing & Communications office.

The top spot went to Mark Tuszynski’s paper, published in the September 14 issue of Cell, in which he and colleagues were able to regenerate axonal growth at the site of severe spinal injury in rats using neural stem cells. The work has obvious implications for efforts to develop therapies to restore central nervous system and motor function.

In second place was a PNAS paper out of Roger Tsien’s lab which reported creating a new generation of fast-acting fluorescent dyes that optically highlight electrical activity in neuronal membranes. The achievement will help scientists better decipher how brain cells function and interact.

In third place was research by a multi-institution team, headed by Sharon Reed in the UC San Diego Departments of Pathology and Medicine and James McKerrow at the UC San Francisco Sandler Center for Drug Discovery, that identified an existing drug was also effective against Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses and results in the death of more than 70,000 people worldwide each year. The findings were published in the June issue of Nature Medicine.

You can read more about all of the 2012 selections below.

Fast-acting dyes highlight membrane activities of neurons (R. Tsien, E. Miller, et al.)

Researchers induce functional Alzheimer’s neurons in vitro from pluripotent stem cells (L. Goldstein, et al.)

Brain cancer patients treated with novel viral vector that leaves healthy cells untouched (S. Kesari, et al.)

New weight loss surgery folds stomach into smaller size (S. Horgan, et al.)

Drug found for parasite that causes amoebic dysentery, kills thousands worldwide (S. Reed, et al.)

New surgical technique may reverse paralysis, restore use of hand (J. Brown, et al.)

New technology pinpoints source of irregular heart rhythms, improves treatment (S. Narayan, et al.)

Novel enzyme target identified for anti-malarial drug development (L. Bode, et al.)

New method indentifies whether leukemia will be aggressive or slow-moving (T. Kipps, et al.)

Patterns in adolescent brains could predict heavy alcohol use (S. Tapert, et al.)

Potency of statins linked to muscle pain and weakness (B. Golomb, et al.)

Neural stem cells regenerate axons in severe spinal cord injury (M. Tuszynski, et al.)

New way of fighting high cholesterol upends assumptions (C. Glass, et al.)

Blocking tumor-induced inflammation impacts cancer development (M. Karin, et al.)

Study finds potential new drug therapy for Crohn’s disease (W. Sanborn, et al.)

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