War and Peace (of Mind) Meditation training may help reduce stress disorders among U.S. military personnel
Researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Naval Health Research Center have found that mindfulness training – a combination of meditation and body awareness exercises – can help U.S. Marine Corps personnel prepare for and recover from stressful combat situations.
The study, published in the May 16, 2014 online issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry, suggests that incorporating meditative practices into pre-deployment training might be a way to help the U.S. military reduce rising rates of stress-related health conditions, including PTSD, depression and anxiety, within its ranks.
“Mindfulness training won’t make combat easier,” said Martin Paulus, MD, professor of psychiatry and senior author. “But we think it can help Marines recover from stress and return to baseline functioning more quickly.”
Scientists describe mindfulness as a mental state characterized by “full attention to the present moment without elaboration, judgment or emotional reactivity.”  Mindfulness training, traditionally practiced through sitting meditation, attempts to cultivate this mental state by quieting the mind of extraneous thoughts.
In the study, Marine infantrymen in four platoons at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton took an eight-week course in mindfulness, tailored for individuals operating in highly stressful environments.
The course included classroom instruction on meditation and homework exercises, as well as training on interoception – the ability to help the body regulate its overall physical equilibrium (homeostasis) by becoming aware of bodily sensations, such as tightness in the stomach, heart rate and tingling of the skin.
“If you become aware of tightness in your stomach, your brain will automatically work to correct that tightness,” Paulus explained.
Participating Marines, along with others who had not undergone mindfulness training, then spent a day in mock immersive combat at a 32,000-square-foot training facility staged to resemble a rural Middle Eastern village. During the day’s exercises, Marines patrolled the village, met village leadership and responded to a highly realistic ambush.
The scientists found that the heart and breathing rates of those who had received mindfulness training returned to their normal, baseline levels faster than those who had not received the mindfulness training. Blood levels of a tell-tale neuropeptide suggested that the mindfulness-trained Marines experienced improved immune function, as well.
Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed that the mindfulness-trained Marines had reduced activity patterns in regions of the brain responsible for integrating emotional reactivity, cognition and interoception. Lori Haase, a postdoctoral fellow in Paulus’ lab and a co-author of the study, said similar brain activity patterns had been observed in high performance athletes and Navy seals. High-activity levels in these areas of the brain, she noted, are associated with anxiety and mood disorders. The scientists hypothesize that reduced brain activity in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate may be characteristic of elite performers in general.
“That we can re-regulate the activity in these areas with so little training is this study’s most significant finding,” Paulus said. “Mindfulness helps the body optimize its response to stress by helping the body interpret stressful events as bodily sensations. The brain adds less emotional affect to experiences and this helps with stress recovery.”

War and Peace (of Mind)
Meditation training may help reduce stress disorders among U.S. military personnel

Researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Naval Health Research Center have found that mindfulness training – a combination of meditation and body awareness exercises – can help U.S. Marine Corps personnel prepare for and recover from stressful combat situations.

The study, published in the May 16, 2014 online issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry, suggests that incorporating meditative practices into pre-deployment training might be a way to help the U.S. military reduce rising rates of stress-related health conditions, including PTSD, depression and anxiety, within its ranks.

“Mindfulness training won’t make combat easier,” said Martin Paulus, MD, professor of psychiatry and senior author. “But we think it can help Marines recover from stress and return to baseline functioning more quickly.”

Scientists describe mindfulness as a mental state characterized by “full attention to the present moment without elaboration, judgment or emotional reactivity.”  Mindfulness training, traditionally practiced through sitting meditation, attempts to cultivate this mental state by quieting the mind of extraneous thoughts.

In the study, Marine infantrymen in four platoons at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton took an eight-week course in mindfulness, tailored for individuals operating in highly stressful environments.

The course included classroom instruction on meditation and homework exercises, as well as training on interoception – the ability to help the body regulate its overall physical equilibrium (homeostasis) by becoming aware of bodily sensations, such as tightness in the stomach, heart rate and tingling of the skin.

“If you become aware of tightness in your stomach, your brain will automatically work to correct that tightness,” Paulus explained.

Participating Marines, along with others who had not undergone mindfulness training, then spent a day in mock immersive combat at a 32,000-square-foot training facility staged to resemble a rural Middle Eastern village. During the day’s exercises, Marines patrolled the village, met village leadership and responded to a highly realistic ambush.

The scientists found that the heart and breathing rates of those who had received mindfulness training returned to their normal, baseline levels faster than those who had not received the mindfulness training. Blood levels of a tell-tale neuropeptide suggested that the mindfulness-trained Marines experienced improved immune function, as well.

Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed that the mindfulness-trained Marines had reduced activity patterns in regions of the brain responsible for integrating emotional reactivity, cognition and interoception. Lori Haase, a postdoctoral fellow in Paulus’ lab and a co-author of the study, said similar brain activity patterns had been observed in high performance athletes and Navy seals. High-activity levels in these areas of the brain, she noted, are associated with anxiety and mood disorders. The scientists hypothesize that reduced brain activity in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate may be characteristic of elite performers in general.

“That we can re-regulate the activity in these areas with so little training is this study’s most significant finding,” Paulus said. “Mindfulness helps the body optimize its response to stress by helping the body interpret stressful events as bodily sensations. The brain adds less emotional affect to experiences and this helps with stress recovery.”

Igor Grant Named Chair of UC San Diego Department of Psychiatry

Igor Grant, MD, FRCP(C), an internationally recognized neuropsychiatrist, whose research interests have ranged from the neurobiology of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse, psychobiology of stress, to the therapeutic potential of medicinal cannabis, has been named the new Chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

“Dr. Grant embodies the extraordinary scope and depth of research in the Department of Psychiatry. Indeed, he has been fundamental to its rise and enduring excellence,” said David Brenner, MD, vice chancellor for Health Sciences and dean of the School of Medicine. “Dr. Grant has always been at the forefront of his science, pushing for answers to questions in new and sometimes controversial or difficult areas. I have no doubt that the Department of Psychiatry will continue to excel under his leadership.”

More here

The Ilk of Human KindnessOlder women with gumption score high on compassion
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that older women, plucky individuals and those who have suffered a recent major loss are more likely to be compassionate toward strangers than other older adults.
The study is published in this month’s issue of the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
Because compassionate behaviors are associated with better health and well-being as we age, the research findings offer insights into ways to improve the outcomes of individuals whose deficits in compassion put them at risk for becoming lonely and isolated later in life.
“We are interested in anything that can help older people age more successfully,” said Lisa Eyler, PhD, a professor of psychiatry and co-author. “We know that social connections are important to health and well-being, and we know that people who want to be kind to others garner greater social support. If we can foster compassion in people, we can improve their health and well-being, and maybe even longevity.”
The study, based on a survey of 1,006 randomly selected adults in San Diego County, aged 50 and over, with a mean age of 77, identified three factors that were predictive of a person’s self-reported compassion: gender, recent suffering and high mental resiliency.
Women, independent of their age, income, education, race, marital status or mental health status, scored higher on the compassion test, on average, than men. Higher levels of compassion were also observed among both men and women who had “walked a mile in another person’s shoes” and experienced a personal loss, such as a death in the family or illness, in the last year.
Those who reported higher confidence in their ability to bounce back from hard times also reported more empathy toward strangers and joy from helping those in need.
“What is exciting is that we are identifying aspects of successful aging that we can foster in both men and women,” said co-author Dilip Jeste, MD, Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, and director of the Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging. “Mental resiliency can be developed through meditation, mindfulness and stress reduction practices. We can also teach people that the silver lining to adversity is an opportunity for personal growth.”

The Ilk of Human Kindness
Older women with gumption score high on compassion

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that older women, plucky individuals and those who have suffered a recent major loss are more likely to be compassionate toward strangers than other older adults.

The study is published in this month’s issue of the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

Because compassionate behaviors are associated with better health and well-being as we age, the research findings offer insights into ways to improve the outcomes of individuals whose deficits in compassion put them at risk for becoming lonely and isolated later in life.

“We are interested in anything that can help older people age more successfully,” said Lisa Eyler, PhD, a professor of psychiatry and co-author. “We know that social connections are important to health and well-being, and we know that people who want to be kind to others garner greater social support. If we can foster compassion in people, we can improve their health and well-being, and maybe even longevity.”

The study, based on a survey of 1,006 randomly selected adults in San Diego County, aged 50 and over, with a mean age of 77, identified three factors that were predictive of a person’s self-reported compassion: gender, recent suffering and high mental resiliency.

Women, independent of their age, income, education, race, marital status or mental health status, scored higher on the compassion test, on average, than men. Higher levels of compassion were also observed among both men and women who had “walked a mile in another person’s shoes” and experienced a personal loss, such as a death in the family or illness, in the last year.

Those who reported higher confidence in their ability to bounce back from hard times also reported more empathy toward strangers and joy from helping those in need.

“What is exciting is that we are identifying aspects of successful aging that we can foster in both men and women,” said co-author Dilip Jeste, MD, Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, and director of the Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging. “Mental resiliency can be developed through meditation, mindfulness and stress reduction practices. We can also teach people that the silver lining to adversity is an opportunity for personal growth.”

Brain Trauma Raises Risk of Later PTSD in Active-Duty MarinesDeployment-related injuries are biggest predictor, but not the only factor   
In a novel study of U.S. Marines investigating the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over time, a team of scientists led by researchers from the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that TBIs suffered during active-duty deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan were the greatest predictor for subsequent PTSD, but found pre-deployment PTSD symptoms and high combat intensity were also significant factors.
The findings are published in the December 11 online issue of JAMA Psychiatry.
The team, headed by principal investigator Dewleen G. Baker, MD, research director at the VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego and a practicing psychiatrist in the VA San Diego Healthcare System, analyzed 1,648 active-duty Marines and Navy servicemen from four infantry battalions of the First Marine Division based at Camp Pendleton in north San Diego County. The servicemen were evaluated approximately one month before a scheduled 7-month deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, one week after deployment had concluded, and again three and six months later.
PTSD is a psychiatric condition in which stress reactions become abnormal, chronic and may worsen over time. The condition is linked to depression, suicidal tendencies, substance abuse, memory and cognition dysfunction and other health problems.
The servicemen were assessed at each evaluation using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale or CAPS, a structured interview widely employed to diagnose PTSD and severity. Researchers asked about any head injuries sustained prior to joining the service and any head injuries sustained during deployment from a blast or explosion, vehicle accident, fall or head wound from a bullet or fragment.
Traumatic brain injuries are common. At least 1.7 million Americans annually sustain a TBI, with an estimated 5 million Americans living with TBI-related disabilities. More than half (56.8 percent) of the servicemen reported a TBI prior to deployment; almost a fifth (19.8 percent) reported a TBI during deployment. The vast majority of deployment-related TBIs (87.2 percent) were deemed mild, with less than 24 hours of post-traumatic amnesia. Of the 117 Marines whose TBI resulted in lost consciousness, 111 said it was less than 30 minutes.
More here

Brain Trauma Raises Risk of Later PTSD in Active-Duty Marines
Deployment-related injuries are biggest predictor, but not the only factor   

In a novel study of U.S. Marines investigating the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over time, a team of scientists led by researchers from the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that TBIs suffered during active-duty deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan were the greatest predictor for subsequent PTSD, but found pre-deployment PTSD symptoms and high combat intensity were also significant factors.

The findings are published in the December 11 online issue of JAMA Psychiatry.

The team, headed by principal investigator Dewleen G. Baker, MD, research director at the VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego and a practicing psychiatrist in the VA San Diego Healthcare System, analyzed 1,648 active-duty Marines and Navy servicemen from four infantry battalions of the First Marine Division based at Camp Pendleton in north San Diego County. The servicemen were evaluated approximately one month before a scheduled 7-month deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, one week after deployment had concluded, and again three and six months later.

PTSD is a psychiatric condition in which stress reactions become abnormal, chronic and may worsen over time. The condition is linked to depression, suicidal tendencies, substance abuse, memory and cognition dysfunction and other health problems.

The servicemen were assessed at each evaluation using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale or CAPS, a structured interview widely employed to diagnose PTSD and severity. Researchers asked about any head injuries sustained prior to joining the service and any head injuries sustained during deployment from a blast or explosion, vehicle accident, fall or head wound from a bullet or fragment.

Traumatic brain injuries are common. At least 1.7 million Americans annually sustain a TBI, with an estimated 5 million Americans living with TBI-related disabilities. More than half (56.8 percent) of the servicemen reported a TBI prior to deployment; almost a fifth (19.8 percent) reported a TBI during deployment. The vast majority of deployment-related TBIs (87.2 percent) were deemed mild, with less than 24 hours of post-traumatic amnesia. Of the 117 Marines whose TBI resulted in lost consciousness, 111 said it was less than 30 minutes.

More here

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