Study gives promise to new treatment for appendix cancer
Appendix cancer is rare, with approximately 600 to 1,000 new patients diagnosed each year and an estimated 10,000 currently living with the disease. Because it is rare, few studies have been devoted to this cancer and standard treatment for appendix cancers relies upon the same chemotherapy drugs used for colorectal cancer. A new study by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine has found that genetic mutations in appendix and colon cancers are, in fact, quite different, suggesting that new and different approaches to appendix cancer treatment should be explored.
The study was published in a recent issue of Genome Medicine.
Cancers are characterized by different gene mutations. Historically, genetic mutations in appendix cancer have been poorly characterized due to its low incidence. The cancer often remains undiagnosed until it is discovered during or after abdominal surgery or when an abnormal mass is detected during a CT scan for an unrelated condition.
The primary treatment of localized appendix cancer is surgical but treatment for patients with inoperable appendix cancer has been limited to therapies developed for colorectal cancer. Although the chemotherapy drugs used for colorectal cancer dramatically improve patient outcomes, they have not proven to be as successful in patients with appendix cancer.
“We have been treating appendix cancer like colorectal cancer because it was thought to be the most similar tumor type, but this study identifies the signature differences between these two cancers,” said Andrew Lowy, MD, FACS, a senior author of the study and professor of Surgery at UC San Diego School of Medicine. “These findings suggest opportunities to develop novel therapies that specifically target appendix cancer.”
The study initially evaluated 10 cases, nine with low-grade appendix cancers and one with high-grade cancer. The results from this group were then validated with 19 additional cases.
The results also identified a gene mutation in appendix cancer that is commonly found in a form of pancreatic cancer, which typically spreads rapidly and is seldom detected in its early stages.
“The study’s results are promising for patients. We now have a more in-depth knowledge of the biological make up of appendix cancers, which allow for a more customized approach,” said Lowy, who also serves as chief of the Division of Surgical Oncology at UC San Diego Health System. “The goal is to now conduct more studies that will test specific treatments targeted to these unique genetic mutations.”
To learn more about cancer treatments at UC San Diego Health System, visit cancer.ucsd.edu
Image: A histopathological photomicrograph depicting cancerous cells in the appendix.